segunda-feira, 25 de maio de 2020

Report of Mission 39 in Habitat Marte



Days: 
May 14th-19th, 2020.

Members of the mission:

Agnieszka Elwertowska (Poland)
Commander
Main station chief
E-mail: agnelwer@gmail.com

Prof. Julio Rezende (Brazil)
Vice-Commander
Power station chief

Ahmed Abdi
Chief-engineer
Engineering Center chief

Ruvimbo Samanga 
Chief-executive
Health Center chief
E-mail: ruvimbosamanga@gmail.com

Anne Agi (Nigeria)
Scientist-chief
BioMars Sanitation Center

Davi Souza (Brazil)
Invited Researcher 
Greenhouse chief

Eva Blaisdell (United States)
Invited Researcher
E-mail: eva.blaisdell@californiaspacecenter.com


General objective:
Test innovations in the methodology of virtual missions with participants of different countries.

Presentation
The members of the mission 39 were Agnieszka Elwertowska (Poland), Julio Rezende (Brazil), Ahmed Abdi (Somalia), Ruvimbo Samanga (Zimbabwe) and Anne Agi (Nigeria). The mission presents the following invited researchers: Davi Souza (Brazil) and Eva Blaisdell (United States).

On Saturday (May, 16th, 2020), was held a webinar with Eva Blaisdell and Julio Rezende.

Activities developed during the mission:
- Improve the virtual and hybrid mission methodology;
- SGAC Space Webinars – Earth Observations satellites missions and data access platforms;
- Live on Instagram SPACE ENTREPRENEURSHIP with Lady Rocket Eva Blaisdell and Julio Rezende.
- Live from Habitat Marte;
- Maintenance of the Deep Water Culture – DWC aquaponic system in Habitat Marte.


MISSION TIMELINE
Sol 1: May 14th, 2020 (Thursday): 
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-4h
- Preparation of methodology.
9h
- Sending the first messages to the team
11h-12h
- Preparation of methodology.
12h
- First contact with the crew.
- Beginning of the mission.
12h-13h10m
- video call with the whole team;
- Presentation of the Journey of fantasy;
- Mission reports;
- Next activities;
- Presentation of the basic guidelines for virtual missions;
- presentation of the offline task 1: space food system.
13h10m-24h
- Preparation of the report and off-line activities. Interactions using Whatsapp group.

Sol 2: May 15th, 2020 (Friday): 
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-3h
- Preparation of methodology.
9h
- Sending the first messages to the team
11h-12h
- Preparation of methodology.
12h
- First contact with the crew.
13h-14h
- live call on presentation about: health center, engineering center and greenhouse. 
14h-17h
- off line activities.
17h-18h30m
- Live call on powerstation and about space food system.
18h30m-24h
- Off-line activities.

Sol 3: May 16th, 2020 (Saturday)
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-3h
- Preparing report.
10h-12h
- Awake;
- Preparing report.
12h-14h
- SGAC Space Webinars – Earth Observations satellites missions and data access platforms;
14h-17h
- Preparation for the Live on Instagram
17h-18h
- Live on Instagram SPACE ENTREPRENEURSHIP with Lady Rocket Eva Blaisdell and Julio Rezende.
18h-19h30m
- Sending tasks to crew. Preparation to travel.
19h30m-22h
Travel to Habitat Marte
22h-24h
- Installation of light in Green Lounge.

Sol 4: May, 17th 2020 (Sunday):
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-0h45m
- Installation of light in Green Lounge.
0h45m
Location: Habitat Marte - Caiçara do Rio do Vento/Brazil
Local Time: 21:40 PM
Temperature: 24,7C
Humidity: 78%
0h45m-1h15m
- Barbecue dinner in green lounge. 
6h-7h
- Awakening;
- Preparation of report.
Location: Habitat Marte - Caiçara do Rio do Vento/Brazil
Local Time: 6:30 AM
Temperature: 24,3C
Humidity: 78%
10h
- Wake up.
Location: Caiçara do Rio do Vento – Habitat Marte – Brazil.
Temperature: 27.
Humidity: 62%.
10h-12h
- Observation of BioHabitat
- Water analysis of the fish tank in DWC and Growbed systems
- Add some seed of tomato and pepper crops in the growbed system
- Transplant new crops to the DWC system
12h-12h45m
Live from Habitat Marte – www.Yutube.com/HabitatMarte . Was the first that We used YouTube to transmit the live
12h15m-13h30m
- Preparation of the report. (Habitat Marte – Brazil).
13h30m-15h15m
Travel from Habitat Marte to Natal.
15h15m-17h30m
- Off-line activities;
- Report writing.
17h30m-18h50m
- Live on Space Habitats Management.
18h50m-24h
- Report writing.

Sol 5: May, 18th 2020 (Monday):
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-4h
- Preparation of report.
10h-12h
- Preparation of report
12h-13h
- Video call to discuss on sanitation.
15h25m-16h20m
- Preparation of the report. (Habitat Marte – Brazil).
16h20m-17h
- Lunch time. (Julio Rezende– Brazil).
17h-18h30m
- Final guidelines for the end of the mission.
18h30m-24h
- Report 

Sol 6: May, 19th 2020 (Tuesday): 
TIME (GMT)
Activity
0h-4h
- Preparation of report.
10h-12h
- Preparation of report
12h-13h
- Video call to discuss on sanitation.
18h30m-24h
- Report 

Results and final considerations
From May 14th to May, 19th 2020, happened the 39th mission of the Habitat Marte Mars analog research station. The members of the mission 39 were Agnieszka Elwertowska (Poland), Julio Rezende (Brazil), Ahmed Abdi (Somalia), Ruvimbo Samanga (Zimbabwe) and Anne Agi (Nigeria). The mission presents the following invited researchers: Davi Souza (Brazil) and Eva Blaisdell (United States). The mission was developed during 133 hours.
Was the third mission with more foreigners than Brazilians. This was the fifth hybrid mission. Hybrid missions involve: 1) remote activities (remotely, developed in a virtual way) and 2) in person (involving in situ operations to support the operation of Habitat Marte).

Thursday:
This mission presents a good number of innovations:
1 – 1st time operating with CapCom, a moment when is transmitted personal report/ local data collection to the commander and other members of the crew; CAPCOM methodology. CAPCOM is the communication liaison between the astronauts and Mission Controls Centre-this role is designated to the commander. CAPCOM is an acronym for ‘Capsule Communicator”, used to streamline the sharing of information. 

2 – Was the first day adopting the methodology of Sol, to refers to Mars day. 
3 – 1st time adopting a map of Mars landscape to demonstrate where is located each facility in Mars Habitat. 
4 - 1st time when the participants are designed as chief of facilities of the space habitat: Main Station, Power Station, Engineering Center, Launch Center, Sanitation Center, Greenhouse and Health Center.
5 - 1st time when the participants are invited to propose: 1) functionalities of the specific facility in the the space habitat; 2) position’ duties; 3) guidelines to be provided to other facilities/ whole; 4)  guidelines to be provided to station and also applied to daily lives in Earth.
6 - first mission commanded by a women; 
7 - first mission with more women than man;
8 - first mission with more participants from Africa.
9 - first mission with 6 days of operation.

In the first day of mission, during the first meeting was presented: 1) Introduction to the mission; 2) The participants; 3) Guidelines for virtual mission; 4) Space journey of fantasy; 5) Local Data Collection protocol; 6) Sharing the Initial Survey; 7) Presentation of the program and 8) Tasks to be developed in the next virtual meetings.

Friday: 
In the second day (Friday), during the CapCom there was a lot of dust and crew had problems with proper connection. 

Green House (Davi Souza)
Davi made presentation about Greenhouse in Habitat Marte and also he present technologies and problems of food production during Space Missions. Ahmed made presentation about Engineering Center Module and Spacesuits. Moreover Ruvimbo talked about Health Centre and her duties. 

Key findings:
Astronauts in space will require aesthetic and practical crops and plants, especially for mental health, astronauts aboard the ISS have already discovered that having a pleasing environment helps with psychological well-being both in space and on Earth as well as keeping them healthy for long missions. Vitamin deficiencies can cause terrible health problems so to curb this requires fresh produce. Pre-packaged vitamins break down over time. NASA is looking to provide astronauts with nutrients in a long-lasting easily-absorbable form through fresh produce. 
Gardening can also be a good mindfulness tool as well and promotes happiness and good wellbeing. 
To date the gardening has mainly centred on leafy vegetables such a 3 kinds of lettuce, cabbage, mustard and zinnia flowers. Hopefully in future this will grow to include fruits, legumes and anti-oxidant rich foods that will help astronauts with combating the effects of space radiation. 

Food and Water on Mars
·       Water will be extracted from the Martian soil and will be evaporated from the soil. 
·       Water will be recycled and given to astronauts at a ration of 50 litres per day.
·       1500 litres will be stored for times when power is low or unavailable such as during a dust storm or at night.
·       Oxygen will also be derived through splitting the water into its constituent parts. 
·       Garden will be fertilised using water, human waste and inedible plant compost. CO2 is present from the Martian atmosphere.
·       Since there is gravity water can be used in the same way as water.
·       Nitrogen can be extracted directly from the Martian soil. 
·       First weeks supplies will be from Earth but it is expected that astronauts become self-sufficient, it is highly likely that algae and insects will be consumed in order to supplement protein diet. 
·        
Power Station (Julio Rezende)
How do you produce energy during a dust storm on Mars? 
How to produce and maintain the energy supplies during a dust storm?
·       Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. Here the energy is provided by diesel power generators. 
·       Sustainable development is just as important a consideration even in a Martian mission. 
Space Food System (Davi Alves)
Includes only plant production but also fish production for protein supplements. Habitat Marte has achieved a bio habitat self-sustainable system that includes a fish farm. 
Possible solutions:
·       Automation and coding of food production
·       Water quality analysis – particularly interesting in light of the water challenges currently being experienced in certain parts of Zimbabwe. 
·       Fidelity of methodologies during the cultivation process.
·       Recycling and sourcing of waste water and rain water. 
Maintaining sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions that mimic the lunar and Martian terrain give us insight into the kind of sustainable methodologies we would have to adopt in light of climate change related catastrophes (i.e. Desertification).

Proposals
Waste water is increasingly being seen as a resource providing reliable water and nutrients for food production. Therefore:
·       Management practices should be developed which sufficiently treat and safely reuse water
·       There must be institutional and regulatory oversight to achieve this
·       In addition to public education campaigns aimed at informing people on wastewater use


Saturday: 
At 12 GMT there was SGAC Space Webinars – Earth Observations satellites missions and data access platforms.
After the Live, Julio and Davi travelled to Habitat Marte. Arriving in Habitat Marte they installed the light in green lounge.
At the evening 5pm GTM there was live on Instagram with Julio Rezende and Lady Rocket Eva Blaisdell on entrepeurship. 

Sunday:
Some activities developed during Sunday:
- Observation of BioHabitat
- Water analysis of the fish tank in DWC and Growbed systems
- Add some seed of tomato and pepper crops in the growbed system
- Transplant new crops to the DWC system

Was possible identify:
-  that the roots of the uprooted plants used as a substrate for the seedlings of the DWC system presented good result.
- The organic matter removed with the cleaning of the pipes served to supply the Economic Bed contributed to a great improvement of the quality water in the system.

Sunday, during the morning, was done the maintenance of the grow beds aquaponic system and the Deep Water Culture – DWC aquaponic system in Habitat Marte. Was also introduced more plants in DWC system.
At 12pm GMT there was live on YouTube from Habitat Marte which was virtual tour. The address: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aciV5emiIKs.

During the afternoon, was watched the video Physical exercises at the International Space Station (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/sciencetech/video-2144978/Video-NASA-astronauts-share-workout-routine-aboard-ISS.html). The video was important to invite to a discussion about the important of physical exercises in space habitats, and also the in space analog habitats.
Because of coronavirus and social isolation, some participants of Habitat Marte are not doing physical exercises, and some part of this members would become sick. Mainly related to be doing regular physical activities.
Presents a physical exercise routine is important to guide the crew in terms of to do physical health. It is necessary a Guideline of physical exercises during off-line activities. Also complemented by a video produced by Habitat Marte or just available in YouTube.

At 5.30pm GMT crew talked about management during Space Missions. Agnieszka made presentation about Main Module of Habitat Marte and she gave schedule example from her previous Mission in Poland. 
Crew talked about space beds, toilets, kitchens and addtional activities during Missions which integrate crew. 
Key findings
Water- Is recycled according to a closed-loop system.
Sanitation - Watched a video of the ISS ablution facilities. Waste products are treated in-situ through flash freezing in non-gravity exposure.

Health Centre concerns
Recognizing that poor sanitation results in poor wellbeing and transmissions of diseases which negatively affects both emotional and physical health. Proper sanitation:
·       Promotes a sense of dignity 
·       Limits the passing on of intestinal diseases such as intestinal worms and other communicable diseases
HCC proposes access to safe clean drinking water as a priority hence proposes the development of fully-fledged water treatment facilities at the habitat which would ensure proper waste management and efficient recycling. 

Proposals
Health centre, in order to boost the good health and wellbeing of the astronauts, commits to the following guidelines as exemplified by the World Health Organization (WHO):
·       To promote risk assessment and management practices for sanitation in socio-isolation communities such as Mars missions, under the guidance of the WHO Guidelines on Sanitation and Health, Safe Use of Wastewater, Recreational Water Quality and Promotion of Sanitation Safety Planning.
·       Investigate on the possibilities of antimicrobial wear and devices to limit the potential spread of any communicable diseases/contaminants
.

Monday:
Discussion on Water & Sanitation
Water is essential for life and maintaining productivity. To avoid water going to waste water has to be carefully rationed and recycled to reduce mission costs over prolonged missions, complete recycling is thus a must. 

How is water recycling achieved?
Closed loop system on the ISS. Waste is captured, pollutants and impurities are removed with chemicals and filtered to produce potable water. 
Technology is being developed to purify water through osmosis, which osmotic process can also be used to turn turbines to generate power. Also NASA is looking to use urine to develop useful chemicals. 
The Water Processing Assembly WPA has capacity to produce 35 gallons of potable recycled water. Water purity is also important, i.e. chemical and microbial contaminants make it unappetizing and unappealing, and potentially clogging complicated fluid systems. The Aerobic Rotational Membrane System research at NASA’s Kennedy Space Centre uses a biological treatment that uses bacteria to purify the water. This system is supposed to allow astronauts to reuse water for more than three years without resupply. Water reserves on Earth are limited especially in remote locations. 

There was another Sand Storm on Mars which spoiled connection. During the first meeting Monday occurred a discussion on sanitation. Anne Agi (Sanitation Center Chief) also developed a presentation about Biomars Sanitation Center and water management: water collection, storage, reuse, recycling.
In the meeting was presented the next challenge: education for the next virtual meeting. In the discussion on space education it is important observe actions developed by NASA, ESA and Habitat Marte.
In the meeting was also presented the guidelines for the end of the mission: 
1) Make sure that photos were taken during the mission;
2) Fill the psychological protocol;
3) Complete the Final Survey.
4) Prepare a short video 1-3 minutes talking about the experience in the virtual mission.

During next meeting (6 PM) happened discussion on education. Was presented NASA, ESA and Habitat Marte popularization initiatives that mission participants will be able to use to continue their training. Arts is an important resource to create interest about space. It is important videos related to space, to share knowledge and inspire people to be interested about. The final video report is very important.

The crew talked about future Education on Mars and also Space Education on Earth now. Some of crew members mentioned that it's hard to do something related to Space in their countries when governments doesn't put enough money to science and engineering activities. 
In the end of meeting was also presented the space fantasy journey.

Tuesday:
            The mission finished Tuesday. During the day were discussed aspects related to the final version of the report.

More information about the missions and the Habitat Marte can be found at www.HabitatMarte.com. 
Agnieszka Elwertowska (commander) and Prof. Julio Rezende (vice-commander).



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